Kitab Istiqal Tarekat Qadiriyyah-Naqhsabandiyyah

Kitab Istiqal Tarekat Qadiriyyah-Naqhsabandiyyah (ms. E)
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Kitab Istiqal Tarekat Qadiriyyah-Naqhsabandiyyah (ms. E)

(Ini adalah bagian dari tesis mahasiswa univ. di australia, yang meneliti tentang para wali di tanah sunda, meneliti tharekat para wali, kitab tharekat dsb….sebagai tesisnya.., Lihat tesis mahaiswa ini)

Scribe: Idoh of Kebon Manggu, Cibalanarik, Sukaraja, Tasikmalaya Dating and place: date unknown. Sukaraja, Tasikmalaya Owner: Idoh, Kebon Manggu, Cibalanarik, Sukaraja, Tasikmalaya Script: Pegon Dimension: 24 cm x 17 cm and 20 cm x 15 cm Paper: HVS Pages: 84 pp Lines per page: 14 Colour: brown

Comments:

According to the villagers, this work is called Kitab Istiqal Thariqah Qadiriyyah Naqshabandiyyah (The Book of the Way of the Tarekat of the Qadiriyyah and the Naqshabandiyyah) and was “copied” from an old manuscript written by Shaykh Abdul Muhyi himself.

Figure 4. A page from Kitab Istiqal Tarekat Qadiriyyah-Naqshabandiyyah

Figure 4. A page from Kitab Istiqal Tarekat Qadiriyyah-Naqshabandiyyah

The opening colophon reads:

“This is the Kitab Istiqal Tarekat Qadiriyyah Naqshabandiyyah. The copying was begun on Monday in the month of Jumadil Awal, coinciding with the day of Kliwon on the second day of Jumadil Awal, 1390 Hijrah. This coincides with July 6, 1970. It was finished on Saturday, 5pm, the 21st day of Jumadil Awal, 1390 which coincides with July 25, 1970.”

Ieu Kitab Istiqal Thariqah Qadiriyyah Naqshabandiyyah ngawitan diturun dina dinten Senen bulang Jumadil Awal meneran dina Kaliwon tanggal 2 Jumadil awwal 1390 Hijrah meneran tanggal genep Juli 1970 MaShaykhi tamatna diturun dina dinten Sabtu jam 5.00 sore ping 21 Jumadil awwal 1390 Hijrah meneran tanggal 25 Juli 1970 Masehi.

Comments: Initially I heard about this manuscript from a custodian of the sacred site at Panyalahan, but at that time, he could not show it to me. According to him, a colleague had taken it away. The custodian of Panyalahan subsequently lost contact with the manuscript following his colleague’s death and he could no longer trace where the it was. After I had been six months in the village, I received information that a retired army officer, Pak Syafii, now held the manuscript. Pak Syafii was a man of influence in the community, not just because he was a custodian reputedly with supernatural powers, but also because he was a retired Major. Through the efforts of an intermediary, he finally permitted me to view the manuscript and made a copy of it. This small incident is interesting for the light it throws on the preservation of manuscripts in Pamijahan. Traditionally, it is the site custodians (kuncen) who must keep, or at least monitor the whereabouts of sacred texts dedicated to their village and their ancestors. However, because of tensions among the main families of the village, each has felt more secure safekeeping his own manuscripts and not reporting them to the custodians. This kitab, as far as I know, is quite different from other Pamijahan manuscripts, or indeed manuscripts from other places. It incorporates various Sufi texts. Its title indicates two well-known schools, the Qadiriyyah and the Naqshabandiyyah, which are indeed traditionally linked. However, in the introduction, the scribe also talks eclectically of other tarekat, namely the Shattariyyah, Asrariyyah, Anfasiyyah and Muhammadiyah. There is no information as to why the scribe chose to limit her title in the way she did, without mentioning the Shattariyyah and other orders. It seems to me that Ms. Idoh, the scribe and owner of the manuscript, may have thought that Shaykh Abdul Muhyi was also a follower the Qadiriyyah—Naqshabandiyyah movement. In the matter of the silsilah, the confusion goes further. First, we would expect Ms. Idoh, who confesses to be the wife of a follower of Sufism, to identify herself according to the protocol of the tarekat by positioning herself within the silsilah. This she has not done. Furthermore, the manuscript does not provide us with a silsilah which might be compared to other manuscripts of Pamijahan as mentioned above. What is given is a hybrid version. For example, Abdul Muhyi is inserted into the silsilah of both the Naqshabandiyyah and the Shattariyyah. On page 75 of the text, this genealogy of Abdul Muhyi is presented, but the scribe has confused the genealogy of Sufism with the genealogy of the Shaykh’s family. This can be seen, in the following fragment

…puputra Shaykh Abd al-Qadir al-Jaelani Baghdadi, puputra Shaykh Abd al-Jabar, puputra Shaykh Abd al-Rauf Waliyullah Kuala Aceh, guruna Shaykh Haji Abdul Muhyi Waliyullah Safaril Wadi Pamijahan.

This fragment erroneously states that Shaykh Abd al-Rauf of 17th century Aceh, the master of Shaykh Abdul Muhyi, is the grandson of the famous Sufi of Baghdad, Shaykh Abd al-Qadir Jailaini (b. 1077). Furthermore, the author uses the words ‘had a child’ (apuputra) which is also discordant, since Abd al-Rauf was not the natural son of Abd al-Jabar. Their relationship was one of precedence in the line of teachers. We know that Abd al-Rauf appears in various silsilah, one of which is that of the Qadiriyyah, but there is no evidence that Abdul Muhyi was ever a follower of Qadiriyyah-Naqshabandiyyah. Thus, as long as there are no other manuscripts with a title or contents resembling this kitab, we cannot decide whether Muhyi also practised Sufi disciplines other than the Shattariyyah. Although this kitab has obvious weaknesses in terms of its silsilah, its explanation of the nature of Shattariyyah doctrine is important. The whole idea of the Seven Levels of Being resembles other Pamijahan manuscripts, but this kitab has its own style when explaining the relations between a view of cosmology, the seven martabats and the salat rituals.

A Shattariyyah Manuscript (ms. F)
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A Shattariyyah Manuscript (ms. F)

Scribe: Dating and place: Owner: Enok Sariah Yatmikasari, Limus Tilu, Cikajang, Garut Script: Pegon Dimension: 19 x 26,5 cm; 15 x 23,5 cm Paper: HVS Pages: 81 pp Lines per page: 14 Colour: black

Comments:

To a certain extent, this manuscript resembles other Pamijahan manuscripts in terms of its contents. However, it has more detail and examples when it comes to the doctrine of the Seven Levels of Being. The manuscript has been transcribed into Latin characters by Edi S. Ekadjati.[5] According to Edi, Kiayi Haji Muhyidin wrote the manuscript before 1821. If this information is true, it is likely that this kitab preserves the original teachings of Abdul Muhyi. The doctrine of the seven martabats in this kitab is close to that expounded in manuscripts C and D. However, there is no explanation about silsilah. According to villagers, Kiayi Haji Muhyidin is a grandson of Shaykh Abdul Muhyi (see Chapter 6)

Babad Pamijahan (Ms. G)
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Babad Pamijahan (Ms. G)

Scribe: Dating and place: Owner: Ajengan Endang Script: Pegon Dimension: 33 cm x 21 cm Paper: European paper Pages: 34 Lines per page: page 1 = 12 lines, pages 2-32 = 14 lines Colour: dark brown

Comments:

This manuscript is damaged on almost every page of the first half and is difficult to read. There is a clue in the paper of the second part however, which indicates the origin of the material: the trading name of ‘M. van Dorp & Co., Batavia’. This indicates that the paper was made in Europe during the 19th century. The paper is similar to that of Ms Sd. 211 held in the National Library of Indonesia, Jakarta. The text does not reveal the scribe or any other information regarding the origin of a first owner or collector. The current owner says that the manuscript was bequeathed to him by his ancestors. However, I speculate that the paper comes from the time of Snouck Hurgronje in the late decades of the 19th century. Snouck had contacted some of Muhyi’s descendants in Manonjaya and Mangunreja, Tasikmalaya, in his search for Islamic materials. A manuscript now held in Leiden University Library (Cod. Or. 7708) tells this story. In his search for manuscripts and ordering of copies he provided European paper to a number of scribes. This paper could have been the van Dorp paper on which this manuscript is written. The manuscript was later translated into Sundanese by the previous kuncen, Zainal Mustopa (Ms. H) below.

A Shattariyyah Manuscript (ms. D)
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A Shattariyyah Manuscript (ms. D)

Scribe: Muhammad Akna Dating and place: Owner: Muhammad Akna Script: Pegon Dimension: 33 cm x 21 cm Paper: book paper Pages: 40 Lines per page: page 1 = 13 lines, pages 2-40 = 14 lines Colour: brown

Comments: This manuscript contains seven fragments of text. The first talks about jurisprudence (fiqh) and includes instructions on correct practice of salat prayer. The second tells about the essence of the confession of faith (syahadat), the third describes Sufi teaching, the fourth presents the Shattariyyah silsilah, the fifth section schematises the main points of Shattariyyah doctrine, and the sixth and seventh describe dikir ritual and the categories of student, or murid. Unlike manuscripts A, B and C, this manuscript uses both the Sundanese and Javanese language. For example, the manuscript describes the essence of syahadat in Javanese. “This is the essence of the syahadat Asyhadu an la… that is to say, the radiation of syahadat merges into the Oneness.” (Punika jatining syahadat Asyhadu an la tegese gempuring syahadat lenyeping tunggal.) Sundanese appears instead of Javanese in the third part of the text which tells about the teaching of tasawwuf. “The third kitab tells about ilmu tassawuf” (Ari kitab anu katilu mertelakeun ilmu tassauf. Kanyahokeun…). In other places, it switches between Javanese and Sundanese, particularly in the section recording the silsilah of the Shattariyyah. “This is the genealogy of Shattariyyah starting from God’s Emissary.” (Punika nganyataken turunan nana perjalanan tarekat Shattariyyah anu kawit ti Kangjeng Rasulullah). The same pattern is also used in elaborating the dikirrecitation, which it says is derived from the great-grandson of Shaykh Abdul Muhyi, Kiai Bagus Hijaya. The text here reads: “This is an invocation of Kiahi Bagus Hijaya or Kiai Bagus Haji Irfan, the son of Kiai Bagus Nida Muhiddin. After the invocation…” (Punika wiridna Kiai Bagus Hijaya atawa Kiahi Bagus Haji Irfan puterana Kiahi Bagus Nida Muhiddin. Sanggeus dikir…). Such patterns are probably influenced by the manuscript’s use in the community. In contemporary Pamijahan, Sundanese texts are often cited in sermons. Indeed the Javanese text may not be intended for use in a communal teaching session at all but rather as a source or reference for the leader (guru), or the adherents of the order, the ikhwan who want to develop their knowledge.

A Shattariyyah Manuscript (ms. C)
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A Shattariyyah Manuscript (ms. C)

This manuscript is also not described in any catalogue.

Dating and place: There is no date but it is believed to have been written by an ancestor of Abdullah Apap in Pamijahan. Scribe: – Owner: Abdullah Apap, Pamijahan-Tasikmalaya Script: Pegon Dimension: 32 x 20 cm Paper: book paper Pages: 40 Lines per page: 1 = 13, 2–40 = 14 Colour: black, almost illegible

Comments: Raden Abdullah Apap is a retired primary school teacher and a member of the local Sundanese aristocracy. By insisting on the use of his title, Raden, he affirms his linkage to the old aristocratic house of Sukapura, Tasikmalaya. He is author of the first book of Sejarah Perjuangan Shaykh Abdul Muhyi (The History of Shaykh Abdul Muhyi’s Mission) published in Pamijahan. The book concerns the mission, or perjuangan, of Muhyi based on this manuscript and on oral sources collected from his family. However, he admitted to me that he is not capable of reading and interpreting the kitab properly, although he is aware that its contents derive from the teachings of Abdul Muhyi.

A Shattariyyah Manuscript (ms. B)

Dating and place: There is no date, but the manuscript is believed to have been copied by villagers or ancestors of Mama Ajengan Satib

Scribe: – Owner: Mama Ajengan Satibi, Pamijahan, Tasikmalaya Script: Pegon Dimension: 21 x 29 cm Paper: locally made paper or dluwang Pages: 9-71 = 62 Lines per page: 10 Colour: black and brown

Figure 3. Manuscript B

Figure 3. Manuscript B

Comments: On the first page, the name of the current owner is written: Satibi of Pamijahan. According to Satibi, he inherited the manuscript from his grandfather. Ajengan Endang often borrows it. The first to ninth pages comprise a collection of favourite prayers assembled over generations, quite separate from the Shattariyyah content. This manuscript is therefore a collation of texts. The Shattariyyah kitab itself is in Javanese. It begins with a line of transmission beginning from Muhammad and ending with Shaykh Abdul Muhyi of Safarwadi and his sons. (pp. 9-10). Interestingly, in this silsilah section, after the name of Muhyi’s son, there is an unfinished sentence which reads “The son Kiahi Mas Nida Muhammad Muhyi in the village of Karang and in Safarwadi and he taught…” (Kang putra kiahi Mas Nida Muhammad Muhyi ing Karang desane lan ing Safarwadi padukuhane lan ia iku amuruk maring…) The empty space at the end of this sentence is to be used by other followers who have obtained the ijazah and who are allowed to inscribe their names there. This raises the possibility that this manuscript was copied from manuscripts dating from the period of Kiahi Mas Nida Muhammad Muhyi, who is believed to have lived some time in the late 18th or early 19th century as the grandson of Muhyi.[4] On page 13, in bold letters, there is the phrase “There is no God but Allah” (la ilaha illa l-lahu) and the Sufi interpretation of this testimony to instruct the disciples. The doctrine of the Shattariyyah begins on page 14 with:

“In the name of God the Compassionate and Merciful… this is the reality of God at the level of His mysteriousness. We tell of the time of emptiness before the universe had been created.”

Bismi l-lah r-rahman r-rahim, punika martabat Allah Ta’ala tatkala ingdalem ghoib sang karihin cinaritaken tatkala awang-awang uwung-uwung bumi langit durung ana.

A full diagram portraying the metaphysical doctrine of the Shattariyyah is given on page 14 and the way Shattariyyah chant (dikir) should be performed is set out on pages 50, 52, and 55.

A Shattariyyah Manuscript (ms. A)
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A Shattariyyah Manuscript (ms. A)

This manuscript has not been described in any catalogue. It is in the Javanese language. There is no title, but the first sentence states”This is a kitab which tells about the genealogy of Shattariyyah” (Utawi ikilah kitab ingdalem anyatakaken turunan-turunane dadalan Shattariyyah).

Dating and place: There is no date but it is believed to have been written by the villagers or a forebear of Ajengan Endang. Scribe: – Owner: Ajengan Endang Pamijahan, Tasikmalaya Script: Pegon Dimensions: 29 cm x 21 cm Paper: locally made paper or dluwang Pages: 28 Lines per page: 10—11 Colour: brown

Figure 2. Manuscript A

Figure 2. Manuscript A
Comments: On the cover, which was probably added by the latest owner, there are some words written in Latin script which include “Lent to Memed: sugar, salt, tobacco, paper and ink. 1956”, (Memed hutang gula, uyah, bako, kertas, mangsi. 1956) indicating the latest year in which the cover might have been added. The manuscript is evidently a copy but there is no mention of the date when the copy might have been made. The original would have been composed long before the copy was made. Ajengan Endang said that the original text was written in the 18th or 19th century by one of his ancestors (eyang). According to Ajengan Endang it would have been copied three generations before his own time. He further claims that this kitab was given to him by his father, Jabidi, whom he believes to have been the last Shattariyyah follower in Pamijahan to possess a traditonal letter of authorisation (ijazah). On pages 7 and 8 of the manuscript, mystical diagrams illustrate the Shattariyyah doctrine of the Seven Levels of Being. The technical ‘area of dikir’ is also schematised on page 24. It shows how the dikir should be started and incorporated into the rhythm of breathing.
Ini adalah bagian dari tesis  :

Signs of the Wali

Narratives at the Sacred Sites in Pamijahan, West Java

Tommy Christomy


Table of Contents

Foreword
Chapter 1. Introduction
Custom: Tali Paranti
B. Going to Pamijahan
C. Signs
D. Narratives
E. Research Questions
F. Volume Structure
Chapter 2. Signs in the Valley
Chapter 3. Manuscripts in Pamijahan: Kakantun Karuhun
A. Introduction
A Shattariyyah Manuscript (ms. A)
A Shattariyyah Manuscript (ms. B)
A Shattariyyah Manuscript (ms. C)
A Shattariyyah Manuscript (ms. D)
Kitab Istiqal Tarekat Qadiriyyah-Naqhsabandiyyah (ms. E)
A Shattariyyah Manuscript (ms. F)
Babad Pamijahan (Ms. G)
Babad Pamijahan (Ms. H)
Conclusion
Chapter 4. The Babad Pamijahan: Sunda, Java and the Identity of the Pamijahanese
A. Introduction
B. The Babad in Sunda
C. The Babad Pamijahan (BP)
D. Translation of The Babad Pamijahan (Ms H)
E. The Structure of the Babad
F. The Narrative of East and West
G. The Horizontal Axis
H. The Vertical Axis
I. Saur Sepuh or ‘What the Ancestors Say…’
J. The References
K. Space and Place: Limestone (Karang)
L. The Interpretant: The East and The West
M. Sumedang and Mataram
N. Conclusion
Chapter 5. Karuhun, Space, Place and Narratives
A. Introduction
B. Karuhun
C. The Sacred Landscape of Pamijahan and its Environs
D. Four Symbolic Spaces
E. Kokocoran and the Notion of Proximity
F. The Places
a. The Tomb of the Shaykh (Makom Kangjeng Shaykh)
b. Kampung Panyalahan
c. Makom Yudanagara
d. Makom Pandawa
G. Mystical Paths
a. Bengkok
b. Guha Safarwadi
c. Masjid Karamat (The Sacred Mosque)
H. Conclusion: The Growing Signs
Chapter 6. Linking to the Wider Worlds of Sufism
A. Introduction
B. The Roots of Shattariyyah
C. The Shattariyyah Order in the World of Islam
D. The Shattariyyah Silsilah in Indonesia
E. The Shattariyyah Silsilah in West Java
F. Shaykh Abdul Muhyi
G. The Successors
a. Paqih Ibrahim
b. Haji Abdullah
c. Dalem Bojong
d. Beben Muhammad Dabas
H. Conclusion
Chapter 7. Grasping the Wali’s Teaching
A. Introduction
B. Origins of Shattariyyah Teaching
C. Martabat Tujuh or The Seven Grades
1. Ahadiyah or The Level of Oneness:
2. Wahdat or Individuation
3. Wahidiyat
4. Alam Arwah
5. Alam Mitsal
6. Alam Ajsam
7. Insan Kamil
D. Conclusion
Chapter 8. Tapping A Blessing in The House of A Young Sufi
A. Introduction
B. Holding the Line, Grasping the Blessing
C. The Zawiya
D. The Communal Congregation
E. The Baiah Session
F. The Shattariyyah Dikir
G. Conclusion: Telling Stories, Taking Precedence
Beben’s Narrative
Chapter 9. Pilgrimage at Pamijahan: Practice and Narrative
A. Introduction
Mediation or Approach
C. Custodianship
D. Pilgrims
E. The sequence of rituals
F. The Prescribed Sequences
Chapter 10. Conclusion
Glossary
Bibliography
Original Acknowledgments for the Thesis
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One Response

  1. Setahu saya Syekh Abdul Muhyi, Mursyid Thoriqoh Syathoriyyah seperti yang tercantum dalam kitab kajian kami di Majlis Taklim Kyai Tambak Deres. Lebih lengkapnya Kunjungi blogspot kami. Atas perhatiannya Terima Kasih.

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